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Most importantly, the formulation of whatever product or diet is fed must be fixed to ensure that the ingredient composition is consistent from batch to batch. If use of a feeding tube is contraindicated or a tube cannot be placed, dogs and cats can be maintained by IV solutions that provide adequate calories, protein, electrolytes, B vitamins, and selected trace minerals until access to the small intestine is possible. See table: Diseases or Clinical Signs in Dairy Cattle That May be Related to Dietary Characteristics or Nutritional Deficiencies for brief descriptions of nutritionally associated diseases, disease signs, etc. Although fish oil supplements generally do not return serum triglycerides to normal values, partial reduction is believed to mitigate the risk of pancreatitis or other problems related to marked increases of this lipid. Periodontal disease is the most common problem affecting dogs in all age groups. In EPI, supplementation with a powdered enzyme supplement, mixed with the food a few minutes before feeding, should be considered. In their first few hours of life, neonates must suckle good quality colostrum from the dam to obtain maternal antibodies (immunoglobulins). Except for the occasional case of lactose or sucrose intolerance, most cooked carbohydrates are well tolerated in both dogs and cats. In rickets, serum calcium and phosphorus are decreased or low normal with a corresponding high parathyroid hormone level; bone mineralization is decreased, and the metaphyseal areas are enlarged. Water deficiency can be seen as a result of poor husbandry or disease. Animals with small-bowel diarrhea usually benefit from a highly digestible diet, whereas those with large-bowel diarrhea often benefit from prebiotics (see Fiber). Magnesium is an essential cofactor of many intercellular metabolic enzyme pathways and is rarely deficient in complete and balanced diets. Young animals have minimal … The cat has a higher protein requirement than most species, and healthy adult cats need a minimum of 3.97 g of protein of high biologic value per kg metabolic body wt/day. A folic acid and B12 (cobalamin) deficiency also produces anemia. Iron or copper deficiency (or both) is the major cause of hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Cats normally use glucogenic amino acids and glycerol to synthesize glucose, which is one reason why cats are classified as true carnivores. Learn nutritional diseases animal with free interactive flashcards. Carnitine supplementation is also beneficial. The most useful measure of energy for nutritional purposes is metabolizable energy (ME), which is defined as that portion of the total energy of a diet that is retained within the body. Some breeds of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy may respond favorably to carnitine supplementation, which has also been beneficial in some breeds of dogs with CHF (including Boxers and Cocker Spaniels), in dogs with cystine or urate urolithiasis, and in dogs consuming a protein-restricted diet. In what is known as the "nutritional transition", traditional plant-based diets including foods such as cereals and potatoes are increasingly being replaced by diets that are richer in added sugars and animal fats.This transition, combined with a general trend towards a more sedentary lifestyle, is an underlying factor in the risk of developing chronic diseases. Brain trauma, burns, and sepsis are all conditions with high metabolic demands, and the amount of energy needed varies among animals. By far they're our best friends. Constipation results from impaired peristalsis or increased water absorption from the large intestine. a Nutrient requirements are indicated on a dry-matter basis and are per kg of diet, not per kg of body weight of animal. Multiple water sources encourage consumption. 1 Effects of environmental temperature are not well characterized in cats, because most of the research was done under thermoneutral (68°–72°F [20°–22°C]) conditions. The very best way to prevent periodontal disease is daily dental home care, but it is useful to add in effective, evidence-based dental food to provide daily plaque control. The growth rate begins to plateau after 6 mo, and growth may be completed by 8–12 mo of age in small and medium breeds and by 10–16 mo in large and giant breeds. Hypokalemia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality, and it can be exacerbated by too aggressive reintroduction to calories. 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