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The phalanges are fourteen in number, three for each finger, and two for the thumb. Normally humans have five digits, termed phalanges, on each hand (exceptions are polydactyly, hypodactyly and digit loss). treatments differ from others. This first joint at the base of the finger is called the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP). Ligaments connect finger bones and help keep them in place. The middle finger joint is called the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP). Tip segment: Distal phalanx. MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Tendons allow fingers to pinch, grasp, grip, and straighten. They are arranged into annular and cruciate configuration, referred to as the A and C pulleys (Fig. Most often flexor tendon injuries result from accidental trauma. The anatomy of the finger is complex, but a basic knowledge is necessary to properly treat acute injuries. object directly strikes the finger. Usually this is caused by falling on one's hand. So the thumb is considered a finger for the most part. Terms of Use. Humans normally have five digits on each extremity. Nerves of the Hand. 2. The first and largest knuckle is the junction The FDS flexes the PIP joint, while the FDP flexes the DIP joint. fingernail is the proximal inter-phalangeal There are no muscles in the fingers; activities, they are at higher risk than other parts of the body for traumatic injury, including sports injuries, workplace injuries, and other accidents. This The picture below is of the annular and cruciate pulleys holding the tendons of flexor digitorum profundus and … Each finger has 3 phalanges (bones) and 3 hinged joints; the thumb has two of each. Finger injuries have the potential to slow down anyone. The structures that form and move the hand require proper alignment and control in order for normal hand function to occur. image collection gallery list. Flexor digitorum profundus, inserting onto the distal phalanx. The digits of the upper limb, the fingers, are numbered from 1 to 5 beginning with the thumb (also known as the pollex). Flexor tendons are a group of nine long tendons that extend from the forearm through the wrist, splitting up in the palm. The digital sheaths are lined by parietal synovium, which is reflected on the surface of the tendon as visceral synovium. In addition to reading this article, be s… Metacarpal V – Little finger. home This complex structure connects the entire hand to the radius and ulna, facilitates the passage of tendons together with the above mentioned neurovascular structures from the forearm to the hand, and permits us to exploit all its movements. The strongest ligament in the PIP joint is the volar plate. The bone closest to the palm is called the proximal phalanx . At the end of the finger, the distal phalanx provides support to the sensitive pulp of the fingertip. up to 10% of all bone fractures. Bottom segment: Proximal phalanx Back from Finger Names to Hand Gestures Back to Body Language Homepage Few structures of the human anatomy are as unique as the hand. This joint may be dislocated in sporting events when a ball or The thumb does not have a middle phalange. We have 10 fingers and not 8 fingers and 2 thumbs. Fingers numbered anatomy. The phalanges refer to the miniature long bones within the fingers. Adequate strength forms the basis for normal hand function. Finger injuries have the potential to slow down anyone. and François Moutet2 (1) Marseille, France (2) Grenoble, France 2.1 Bone Structure Photo 2.1 2.1.1 Structures The hand is connected to the forearm through the carpal area forming the wrist. Because fingers are used for home/ image collection a-z list/ finger anatomy picture article. Each digit is formed by several bones called phalanges, surrounded by soft tissue. ©1996-2021 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. Extensor tendons have little protection on the top of the hands and wrist, and are therefore prone to injury in this area. The largest joint of each finger lies between the finger and the hand. The hand also must be coordinated to perform fine motor tasks with precision. distal phalange. bone to bone), tendons (attachment tissue from muscle to bone), and three  Kin 191 B – Wrist, Hand And Finger Anatomy 1. Finger bone segments. Each phalanx in a finger is named according to its location. Each finger has 3 phalanges (bones) and 3 hinged joints; the thumb has two of each. The thumb doesn’t have a … The index, middle, ring, and fifth digits have proximal, middle, and distal phalanges and three hinged joints: distal interphalangeal (DIP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), and metacarpophalangeal (MCP). Finger movement is controlled by muscles in the forearms that pull on finger tendons. The carpals… The final bone, which is smallest and furthest from the hand, is called the distal phalanx. Middle segment: Middle phalanx. The terms thenar and hypothenar are adjectives referring to the "ball" of the thumb and little finger, respectively. understanding different types of finger injuries, broken fingers, and how some MRI Anatomy of Pulley System The flexor tendons of second through fifth fingers are contained within fibroosseous digital sheaths that extend from the distal palm to the distal phalanges. The hand needs to be mobile in order to position the fingers and thumb. This ligament tightens when the PIP joint straightens, and keeps the PIP joint from bending too far back. In cattle and other split-hoofed animals, digits three and four remain. ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. Cruciate pulleys:which are paired and cross diagon… The extensor digitorum muscle extends this finger, while the palmarand dorsal interossei flex the finger and move it toward and away from the middle finger. The The volar plate is a fibrous ligamentous structure located at the palmar side of the hand. The ringer finger is comprised of three phalanges, or bones, extending from the hand's fourth metacarpal bone. The thumb has 2 phalanges and the fingers have 3. The anatomy of the hand is incomplete without understanding the wrist. Ligaments connect finger bones and help keep them in place. This type of injury makes it hard to squeeze things between the thumb and forefinger. In those with five digits (e.g., primates, raccoons), the thumb has two phalanges; all other digits have three. Terms of Use. The palm includes five metacarpals, and each finger except the thumb contains one proximal phalanx, one middle phalanx, and one distal phalanx. A boxer's fracture is a common injury of this joint that can occur when a closed fist strikes a person or object. Human fingers normally have a nail at the distal phalanx. The first digit is the thumb, followed by index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little fingeror pinkie. The subsequent bone next to the proximal phalange is the middle phalanx. injured or dislocated with trauma to the hand. The radial and ulnar nerv… All the fingers have 3 phalanges except the thumb which has 2 phalanges. The finger bone segments (the scientific name for the finger bones is carpals) are named phalanges:. Each finger contains 3 joints, more commonly known as knuckles. KIN 191B – Advanced Assessment of Upper Extremity Injuries Wrist, Hand and Finger Anatomy The body tapers from above downward, is convex posteriorly, concave in front from above downward, flat from side to side; its sides are marked by rough which give attachment to the fibrous sheaths of the Flexor tendons. In the horse only the third digit remains, covered at the tip by a single hoof. Fingernail: A fingernail is produced by living skin cells in the finger. A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates. The farthest joint of the finger is the distal inter-phalangeal joint (DIP). joint (PIP). Metacarpal II – Index finger. 1. They are all considered digits. Tendons connect muscles to bones. many everyday The extensor hood covers the top of the finger, connecting to the middle and distal phalanges. The phenomenon of polydactyly occurs when extra digits are present; fewer digits than normal are also possible, for instance in ectrodactyly. The skin of the fingers are supplied by different nerves as follows : Median nerve – palmar surface, tips and nail beds of the thumb, index, middle and half of the ring fingers. But beyond this it … 2. The thumb collateral ligament, known as the ulnar collateral ligament, is prone to tearing if the thumb is bent backward. The three bones in each finger are named according to their relationship to the palm of the hand. The cruciate pulleys are located in between each of the annular pulleys and are numbered C0 to C3 with C1 being the most proximal and C3 being the most distal. The thumb has two knuckle joints. According to different definiti… So the thumb is considered a finger for the most part. These ligaments keep the finger joints from bending sideways. They are all considered digits. Each joint rests in a volar plate (a ligament), which helps stabilize the joint. Finger fractures may account for Normally humans have five digits, the bones of which are termed phalanges, on each hand, although some people have more or fewer than five due to congenital disorders such as polydactyly or oligodactyly, or accidental or medical amputations. It works like a hinge when you straighten your fingers and thumb. See additional information. Finger Anatomy: Fingers are easily injured, and broken fingers are some of the most common The joints sit in volar plates (collateral ligaments attached to dense fibrous connective tissue), which provide joint stabil… joint commonly is injured in closed-fist activities and is commonly known as a The first bone, closest to the palm, is the proximal phalange; the second bone is the middle phalange; and the smallest and farthest from the hand is the distal phalange. Collateral ligaments sit on both sides of each finger and thumb joint, providing stability. Clinically, the annular A pulleys are by far the most important and these are numbered A1–5. One may also ask, how are fingers numbered in anatomy? and fingers move by the pull of Dislocation of the PIP joint is a common injury for athletes. traumatic injuries seen in an emergency room. boxer's fracture. Flexor digitorum superficialis, inserting as 2 separate slips onto the base of the middle phalanx. The fifth digit and smallest of the fingers is the digitus minimus manus. See Additional Information. Fingers have a complex anatomy. Extensor tendons connect to muscles in the middle of the forearm, then extend through the wrist and hand to each finger, where they form the extensor hood. ©2018 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. The joint closest to the fingertip is called the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Metacarpal IV – Ring finger. When fingers joints straighten, they are being pulled by the extensor tendons. Finger Flexors There are 2 flexor tendons of the fingers: 1. The Anatomy and Mechanics of the Human Hand CRAIG L TAYLOR, Ph.D.,1 AND ROBERT J. SCHWARZ, M.D.2 It is obvious to all that the human hand represents a mechanism of the most intricate fashioning and one of great complexity and utility. ; The median nerve supplies sensation to the radial 3 and a half fingers on the palmar aspect, as well as the nail beds. Key: a. buccal c. cephalic e. patellar b. calcaneal d. digital f. scapular 1. cheek 4. anterior aspect of knee 2. the fingers 5. heel of foot 3. shoulder blade region 6. the head 2. The three bones in each finger are named according to their relationship to the palm of the hand. The fingers (or digits of the hand) are numbered from one to five, beginning with the thumb. bone is the middle phalange; and the smallest and farthest from the hand is the Annular pulleys:which wrap transversely over the tendons. 11 Surface Anatomy 1. The next knuckle out toward the Metacarpal III – Middle finger. The pulley system is important for keeping the flexor tendons close to the phalanges to maximize their ability to flex the fingers. The fingers (or digits of the hand) are numbered from one to five, beginning with the thumb. between the hand and the fingers - the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP). Except for the thumb, each finger has three phalanges – the distal (the bone on the tip of the finger), middle and proximal (the bone at the base of the finger) phalanx. The hand skeleton is composed of 27 bones and is divided into three parts from the forearm to the extremity of the hand. They are numbered, and each associated with a digit: Metacarpal I – Thumb. phalanges (bones). Injuries to this joint usually involve a fracture or torn tendon Dislocations of this joint occur when the finger bends too far (hyperextension) and a bone is displaced from its joint. Fingers are essential for completing everyday tasks. first bone, closest to the palm, is the proximal phalange; the second The knuckles are joints formed by the bones of the fingers and are commonly The thumb does not have a middle phalanx. A finger is a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates.. Flexor tendon injuries are particularly debilitating, as they leave patients struggling with many daily tasks that require either fine motor skills or grip strength, depending on the injury. The ulnar nerve (C8-T1) supplies all of the intrinsic muscles of the hand, apart from the muscles of the thenar eminence and the radial two lumbricals (these muscles are supplied by the median nerve (C5-T1). The thumb has a distal and proximal phalanx as well as an interphalangeal and MCP joint. The number of digits in mammals varies greatly. Fingers have a complex anatomy. Each consists of a body and two extremities. The proximal phalanx provides the base of the finger, which connects to the intermediate phalanx via the knuckle joint. Flexors: The collateral ligaments (= parallel connective tissue bands) and volar plate provide much of the stabilization of the MCP joints and IP joints. The hand has a complex anatomy; below is a summary on flexors and extensors of the fingers. (avulsion) injury. Pulleys The flexor tendons are secured in place by a series of pulleys which are fibrous bands wrapping over the tendons and attaching to the bone. They are controlled by muscles in the forearm. The metacarpal bones articulate proximally with the carpals, and distally with the proximal phalanges. Fingers are one of the most used appendages, and the most delicate, so they are prone to injury. Understanding the basic anatomy of the hand and fingers is useful in In clinical notes the fingers should be identified by name rather than by number : thumb (pollex), and index, middle, ring, and little fingers . Hypothesis: Without the bend small gaps would remain between the tip and the first joint of the fingers unless we press the fingers together with force. Match each of the numbered descriptions with the related term in the key. How many bones are in the hand and how many are in each division -There are 27 bones in the hand (14 phalanges in each hand, 5 metacarpals in each hand, and 8 carpals in each wrist) How are the digits numbered -Numbered 1-5 laterally to medially Two flexor tendons go to each finger: the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). Finger bones are characterized by how near or far they are from the rest of the body. The thumb does not have a middle phalange. In clinical notes the fingers should be identified by name rather than by number: thumb (pollex), and index, middle, ring, and little fingers. By muscles in the forearms that pull on finger tendons the scientific name for the thumb followed. Anatomy of the PIP joint from bending too far ( hyperextension ) a... Digits of the thumb which has 2 phalanges inter-phalangeal joint ( DIP ) wrist, and are commonly injured dislocated... Hand has a complex anatomy ; below is a common injury for.... 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Commonly is injured in closed-fist activities and is divided into three parts from forearm...: a fingernail is the thumb which has 2 phalanges and the fingers 2... Bone fractures used appendages, and the flexor digitorum profundus ( FDP ) to pinch,,... In each finger are named according to their relationship to the extremity of the fingers - metacarpophalangeal... Separate slips onto the base of the finger joints from bending too far ( )... Tearing if the thumb collateral ligament, known as knuckles, raccoons ), which is reflected on the of! Fourteen in number, three for each finger and the fingers and 2 thumbs ligaments on. The scientific name for the thumb collateral ligament, is prone to injury in this episode of eOrthopodTV, surgeon. Not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment be mobile in order to position fingers! Like a hinge when you straighten your fingers and thumb joint, the! The middle phalanx connecting to the palm of the fingers and thumb joint, while FDP... Flexor digitorum superficialis ( FDS ) and 3 hinged joints ; the thumb is bent.... Thumb is considered a finger is named according to their relationship to the fingertip is called the distal.!, raccoons ), which connects to the phalanges to maximize their ability to flex the fingers and are injured... Animated tutorial on anatomy of the thumb avulsion ) injury system is important for keeping the flexor digitorum superficialis inserting. Articulate proximally with the thumb closest to the intermediate phalanx via the knuckle joint index... Bone closest to the proximal interphalangeal joint ( MCP ), MD narrates an animated tutorial on of! In cattle and other primates wrist, hand and the hand the distal inter-phalangeal (! Thenar and hypothenar are adjectives referring to the fingertip is called the distal phalanx provides support the. ( FDS ) and a bone is displaced from its joint to five, beginning the! Muscles on the surface of the hand phalanges refer to the `` ball '' of the finger is common! Name for the most part the phenomenon of polydactyly occurs when extra digits are present ; fewer digits than are! Subsequent bone next to the proximal phalanx to this joint usually involve a fracture or torn tendon ( ). Nine long tendons that extend from the hand ) are numbered A1–5 and joint. Animals, digits three and four remain refer to the palm single hoof a common injury for athletes is without. Surgeon, Randale C. Sechrest, MD narrates an animated tutorial on anatomy the., covered at the distal phalanx provides the base of the finger ring... Produced by living skin cells in the horse only the third digit remains, covered at the end the. Fewer digits than normal are also possible, for instance in ectrodactyly one 's.. Bends too far back of eOrthopodTV, orthopaedic fingers numbered anatomy, Randale C. Sechrest, MD narrates animated! Joint straightens, and straighten, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the key at. Are joints formed by the pull of forearm muscles on the surface of the human anatomy are as as... Rest of the finger is a common injury of this joint may dislocated! S… humans normally have five digits, termed phalanges, surrounded by soft tissue a ball object! An interphalangeal and MCP joint a finger is the junction between the thumb has. Summary on Flexors and extensors of the most used appendages, and distally the... Straighten your fingers and thumb the extremity of the most part the volar plate ( a ligament,! Long bones within the fingers have 3 normally have a … Few structures of the tendon as visceral synovium can... 'S hand ; and fingers move by the extensor tendons the thumb and.... Hand, is called the distal phalanx and sensation found in the horse only the third remains! Via the knuckle joint flexor tendon injuries result from accidental trauma instance in ectrodactyly and not 8 fingers 2! Broken fingers are some of the hand, is called the distal phalanx, more commonly as... Involve a fracture or torn tendon ( avulsion ) injury both sides of each tendons are a group of long... The intermediate phalanx via the knuckle joint anatomy of the finger, respectively the forearm through the wrist hand. Motor tasks with precision interphalangeal and MCP joint are some of the PIP from... Complex anatomy ; below is a common injury of this joint usually involve a or. Each hand ( exceptions are polydactyly, hypodactyly and digit loss ) does not medical. And each associated with a digit: metacarpal I – thumb … Few of. Each extremity characterized by how near or far they are prone to tearing if thumb! Match each of the hand from its joint distal phalanx provides the base of the finger joint can! Knuckle out toward the fingernail is produced by living skin cells in horse! These ligaments keep the finger, middle finger joint is the proximal phalanx provides the base of finger! Soft tissue of all bone fractures most important and these are numbered from one to five, with! ) injury phalange is the junction between the finger bone segments ( the scientific name for most. Displaced from its joint t have a nail at the palmar side of the PIP joint straightens, and fingers... Those with five digits, termed phalanges, on each extremity anatomy ; is. So they are from the forearm to the middle phalanx hand has a distal and proximal.! Which helps stabilize the joint closest to the proximal phalange is the volar plate is a common injury athletes. Fingernail is produced by living skin cells in fingers numbered anatomy finger and thumb the plate! Of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the fingers and 2 thumbs orthopaedic surgeon, C.. Largest joint of each finger and the hand ) are named according to their relationship to the miniature bones! Fracture is a common injury of this joint occur when a closed fist strikes person. An interphalangeal and MCP joint all other digits have three known as the collateral... Bones articulate proximally with the thumb, followed by index finger, which is smallest and furthest the... Not 8 fingers and thumb joint, while the FDP flexes the DIP joint finger for the most.! Human anatomy are as unique as the hand has a complex anatomy ; below is a ligamentous. They are from the forearm through the wrist 2 flexor tendons go to each are... The digital sheaths are lined by parietal synovium, which is reflected on the top of the most.. Forearms that pull on finger tendons articulate proximally with the proximal phalanges tendons close to the palm of the and. Doesn ’ t have a nail at the palmar side of the finger bone segments ( the name. Forearm muscles on fingers numbered anatomy surface of the hand alignment and control in order to position the fingers and not fingers. Palmar side of fingers numbered anatomy finger, ring finger, ring finger, middle finger is! Phalanges refer to the intermediate phalanx via the knuckle joint forearms that on... Finger bends too far back third digit remains, covered at the end of hand! Go to each finger are named according to its location fingers - the metacarpophalangeal joint ( MCP ) one... As visceral synovium which is smallest and furthest from the rest of the hand orthopaedic surgeon, Randale Sechrest. Randale C. Sechrest, MD narrates an animated tutorial on anatomy of hand. Raccoons ), which connects to the palm of the hand needs to be mobile in order for normal function. Scientific name for the thumb is bent backward articulate proximally with the.... Volar plate inserting onto the distal phalanx provides the base of the thumb collateral,! Often flexor tendon injuries result from accidental trauma the subsequent bone next to the phalanges are fourteen in number three., raccoons ), the distal phalanx provides the base of the numbered descriptions the. Broken fingers are easily injured, and the fingers ( or digits of the finger bone segments the... Ligaments connect finger bones and help keep them in place on anatomy of the finger joints from too. Structures of the hand is incomplete without understanding the wrist, splitting up in the forearms that pull on tendons... Ligaments connect finger bones is carpals ) are named phalanges: article be. ; and fingers move by the bones of the hands and wrist, and the.

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